For decades, basic research and clinical trials have aimed to establish a meaningful cancer immunotherapy. An unprecedented number of medicinal products for cancer immunotherapy are currently being authorised. For this success, the selection of the right molecular targets for immunotherapy has been crucial. Monoclonal antibodies targeting cell surface receptors for growth factors were successfully introduced in clinical routine for the treatment of common solid tumours more than 10 years ago. Since then, however, the focus of cancer immunotherapy has shifted. More recently, many authorized medicines targeting growth factors receptors in solid tumours are no longer based on antibodies, but on small molecule protein kinase inhibitors. Currently, medicines with recent European marketing authorizations for the immunotherapy of cancer come from three major categories: (1) monoclonal antibodies targeting blood cell surface antigens; (2) CAR-T cells for the therapy of haematological neoplasia; and, with broader use including solid tumours, (3) checkpoint inhibitors. For the successful use of many of these medicines, the appropriate companion diagnostics (CDx) are required. Therefore, precision medicine also means selecting precisely the patients who will profit from a specific treatment (using, for example, a CDx). But, how can an informed choice be made with regards to CDx? We will give an overview on the cancer immunotherapies that depend on CDx and outline what to look for when choosing a suitable CDx.
Disclosure Information N. Cascante-Estepa: None. S. Mayrhofer: None. H. Enzmann: None.
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