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Vaccine-induced tumor regression requires a multi-step cooperation between T cells and myeloid cells at the tumor site
  1. Maxime Thoreau1,
  2. Hwei Xian Leong Penny2,
  3. Kar Wai Tan2,
  4. Fabienne Regnier1,
  5. Julia Miriam Weiss1,
  6. Bernett Lee2,
  7. Ludger Johannes3,
  8. Estelle Dransart3,
  9. Agnes Le bon1,
  10. Jean-Pierre Abastado2,
  11. Eric Tartour4,
  12. Alain Trautmann1 and
  13. Nadege Bercovici1
  1. Aff1 grid.10992.330000000121880914Institut Cochin, Inserm U1016, CNRS UMR8104Univ. Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Equipe labellisée “Ligue contre le Cancer” Paris France
  2. Aff2 grid.430276.40000000403872429Singapore Immunology Network, BMSI, A-STAR Singapore Singapore
  3. Aff3 grid.418596.70000000406396384Institut Curie, INSERM U1143, CNRS UMR3666 Paris France
  4. Aff4 grid.7429.80000000121866389Inserm U970, PARCC, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité Paris France

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Meeting abstracts

Most cancer immunotherapies under present investigation are based on the belief that cytotoxic T cells are the most important anti-tumoral immune cells, whereas intratumoral macrophages would rather play a protumoral role. We have challenged this antagonistic point of view and searched on the contrary for complementary contributions provided by tumor-infiltrating T cells and macrophages, reminiscent of those observed in anti-infectious responses. We demonstrate that, in a model of therapeutic vaccination, cooperation between myeloid cells and T cells is indeed required for tumor rejection. Vaccination elicited an early rise of CD11b+ myeloid cells that preceded and conditioned the intratumoral accumulation of CD8+ T cells. Conversely, CD8+ T cells and IFNg production activate myeloid cells and were required for tumor regression. A 4-fold reduction of CD8+ T cell infiltrate in CXCR3KO mice did not prevent tumor regression, whereas a reduction of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells significantly interfered with vaccine efficiency. We show that macrophages from regressing tumors can eliminate tumor cells by TNFα release and phagocytosis. Altogether, our data suggest new strategies to improve the efficiency of cancer immunotherapies, by promoting intratumoral cooperation between macrophages and T cells.