Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis features and immune-related adverse events reported in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors

Clinical features of HLHPatients No. (%) a(n = 38)
Pyrexia2 (5)
Pulmonary involvement
 Cough1 (3)
Neurological involvement
 Encephalopathy1 (3)
 Headache1 (3)
Psychiatric changes
 Delirium1 (3)
Cutaneous involvement
 Generalised erythema1 (3)
 Drug eruption1 (3)
Gastrointestinal involvement
 Enterocolitis1 (3)
 Diarrhoea2 (5)
Renal involvement
 Renal failure1 (3)
 Renal tubular necrosis1 (3)
Haematological and coagulation features of HLH
 Anaemia1 (3)
 Thrombocytopenia2 (5)
 Leukopenia/ White blood cell count decreased2 (5)
 Neutrophil count decreased1 (3)
 Disseminated intravascular coagulation3 (8)
 International normalised ratio abnormal1 (3)
 Pancytopenia/ Bone marrow failure2 (5)
Concurrent irAEs
 Autoimmune hepatitis2 (5)
 Interstitial lung disease2 (5)
 Myositis1 (3)
 Thyroiditis1 (3)
 Cardiacb1 (3)

Abbreviations: HLH haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, irAEs immune-related adverse events

a Some patients reported more than one adverse drug reaction besides HLH

b Atrial fibrillation and left ventricular failure