Table 1

Major immunostimulatory DAMPs and cytokines mechanistically linked to ICD in cancer

FactorClassEffectMain receptor(s)Ref.
ANXA1Surface proteinDirects APCs to dying cellsFPR1 157
ATPNucleotidePromotes the recruitment, maturation and cross-presentation activity of APCsP2RX7
P2RY2
149 150
CALRER chaperonePromotes the uptake of dying cells and type I IFN secretion by APCsLRP1 21 22 160 178 191
CCL2CytokinePromotes T cell and neutrophil recruitmentCCR2 151 159
CXCL1CytokinePromotes T cell and neutrophil recruitmentCXCR2 151 159
CXCL10CytokinePromotes T cell and neutrophil recruitmentCXCR3 151 158 159
Cytosolic RNANucleic acidPromotes the secretion of type I IFN and other proinflammatory factorsMDA5
RIG-I
TLR3
152
Cytosolic DNANucleic acidPromotes the secretion of type I IFN and other proinflammatory factorsAIM2
CGAS
ZBP1
162 164
ERp57ER chaperonePromotes the uptake of dying cells by APCsLRP1 (?) 160
Extracellular DNANucleic acidPromotes the recruitment and activation of neutrophilsTLR9 151 163
F-actinCytoskeletal componentPromotes the uptake of dying cells by APCsCLEC9A 161
HMGB1Nuclear DNA-binding proteinPromotes the maturation and cross-presentation activity of APCsAGER
TLR2
TLR4
153 154
HSP70ER chaperoneFavors the uptake of dying cells by APCsLRP1 21
HSP90ER chaperoneFavors the uptake of dying cells by APCsLRP1 21
TFAMTranscription factorPromotes APC maturation and recruitmentAGER 36
Type I IFNCytokinePromotes APC maturation, cross-presentation, and T cell recruitmentIFNARs 158 194 195
  • AGER, advanced glycosylation end-product specific receptor; AIM2, absent in melanoma 2 ; ANXA1, annexin A1; APC, antigen-presenting cell; CALR, calreticulin; CCL, C-C motif chemokine ligand 2; CGAS, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase; CLEC9A, C-type lectin domain containing 9A; CXCL1, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1; CXCL10, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10; CXCR2, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2; CXCR3, C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 3; DAMP, danger-associated molecular pattern; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; FPR1, formyl peptide receptor 1; HMGB1, high mobility group box 1; HSP, heat shock protein; ICD, immunogenic cell death; IFN, interferon; IFNAR, interferon-alpha/beta receptor; LRP1, LDL receptor-related protein 1; P2RY2, purinergic receptor P2Y2; P2X7, purinergic receptor P2X 7; TFAM, transcription factor A, mitochondrial; TLR2, Toll-like receptor 2; TLR3, toll like receptor 3 ; TLR4, toll like receptor 4; TLR9, toll like receptor 9; ZBP1, Z-DNA binding protein 1.