Table 3

Immune checkpoint inhibitor-associated duodenitis (ICI-Duo) and ICI-celiac disease (CeD) treatment and survival

CharacteristicsICI-Duo (n=9)ICI-CeD (n=8)P value
Remission-inducing therapy
 GFD0/9 (0%)5/8 (62.5%)0.009
 Immunosuppression9/9 (100%)1/8 (12.5%)0.0004
 GFD + immunosuppression0/9 (0%)2/8 (25%)0.205
Total duration on steroids if used (weeks)
 Mean±SD9.50±3.26 (n=8)32.19±25.36 (n=3)0.261
Number of steroid tapering attempts
 01/9 (11%)5/8 (62.5%)0.049
 15/9 (56%)1/8 (12.5%)0.131
 22/9 (22%)0/8 (0%)0.47
 >21/9 (11%)2/8 (25%)0.576
Doses of infliximab to remission (mean)3 (n=4)1 (n=1)N/A
Remission TTG IgA
 Mean±SDN/A37.9±57.87 (n=5)N/A
 Median5.5
Remission IgA
 Mean±SDN/A155.0±57.17 (n=3)N/A
 Median173
Need to discontinue immunotherapy, N (%)6/9 (67)2/8 (25)0.153
Number of additional ICI doses received after onset of symptoms
 Mean±SD0.44±0.731.38±1.690.151
 Median (range)0 (0–2)1 (0–5)
Malignancy restaging (best response)
 Complete response/relapse-free4/9 (44%)3/8 (37.5%)>0.999
 Objective response/partial response1/9 (11%)2/8 (25%)0.576
 Stable disease0/9 (0%)0/8 (0%)>0.999
 Progressive disease/relapsed4/9 (44%)3/8 (37.5%)>0.999
Progression-free survival (months)
Mean: 11±11.29;Mean: 13.75±16.39;0.689
Median: 7; range: 1–29Median: 7; range: 1–47
Overall survival (months)
Mean: 22.44±9.70;Mean: 29.13±15.920.306
Median: 20; range: 13–41Median: 28; range: 8–52
  • The p-value was calculated by Student’s t-test and analysis of variance method for numerical covariates and χ2 test or Fisher’s exact for categorical covariates where appropriate. Immunosuppression denotes the use of either corticosteroids or antitumor necrosis factor medications. Remission tissue transglutaminase (tTG) IgA was defined as tTG IgA measured at the time of clinical symptomatic remission or endoscopic remission. Need to discontinue immunotherapy: restricted to complications of ICI-CeD or ICI-Duo and not due to loss of therapeutic effect or disease progression. Malignancy restaging after ICI was determined by the best response per Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors.

  • GFD, gluten-free diet; N/A, not applicable.