Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the cohort

CharacteristicCohortNo AKIAKI
Age, median (IQR)61 (51 to 69)60 (51 to 70)63 (55 to 68)
Female (%)123 (39.8)108 (35)15 (4.9)
Baseline serum creatinine mg/dL, median (IQR)0.8 (0.7 to 1.0)0.8 (0.7 to 1.0)0.8 (0.7 to 1.0)
Baseline eGFR mL/min/1.73 m2, median (IQR)88 (75 to 99)88 (76 to 99)90 (72 to 99)
Cancer type
 Melanoma (%)262 (84.8)217 (70.2)45 (14.6)
 Lung (%)31 (10.0)28 (9.1)3 (1.0)
 Genitourinary (%)12 (3.9)11 (3.6)1 (0.3)
 Other (lymphoma, ovarian, and colon) (%) 4 (1.3)04 (1.3)
Comorbidities
 Cerebrovascular disease (%)8 (2.6)3 (1.0)5 (1.6)
 Congestive heart failure (%)5 (1.6)4 (1.3)1 (0.3)
 COPD/asthma (%)7 (2.3)6 (1.9)1 (0.3)
 Diabetes (%)33 (10.7)25 (8.1)8 (2.6)
 Hypertension (%)105 (34.0)73 (23.6)32 (10.4)
 Liver disease (%)1 (0.03)1 (0.3)0
 Peripheral vascular disease (%)2 (0.6)2 (0.6)0
 Peptic ulcer disease (%)1 (0.3)1 (0.3)0
 HIV/AIDS (%)1 (0.3)1 (0.3)0
 Hemiplegia/paraplegia (%)8 (2.6)8 (2.6)0
Concomitant medications
 ACEi/ARB (%)55 (17.8)38 (12.3)17 (5.5)
 PPI (%)35 (11.3)26 (8.4)9 (2.9)
 Diuretics (%)29 (9.4)17 (5.5)12 (3.9)
 NSAIDs (%)15 (4.9)13 (4.2)2 (0.6)
 Steroid (%)105 (34.0)81 (26.2)24 (7.8)
 Antibiotics (%)17 (5.5)9 (2.9)8 (2.6)
Immunotherapy
 Ipilimumab (%)219 (70.9)194 (62.8)25 (8.1)
 Nivolumab (%)54 (17.5)49 (15.9)5 (1.6)
 Pembrolizumab (%)36 (11.7)15 (4.9)21 (6.8)
 Combined immunotherapy (Ipi+Nivo)23 (7.4)19 (6.1)4 (1.2)
 Other (non-renal) immune-related adverse events (%)142 (46)104 (40)38 (75)
 Duration of therapy prior to AKI days (IQR)30 (21 to 79)
  • ACEi, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; AKI, acute kidney injury; ARB, angiotensin-receptor blockers; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; Ipi, ipilimumab; Nivo, nivolumab; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PPI, proton pump inhibitors.