Table 1

Differences between G-MDSCs and neutrophils

CategoryNeutrophilsG-MDSCsModelsReferences
Surface markersReduced CD115 and CD244.Increased CD115 and CD244.Mice 113
Density centrifugationOn top of the erythrocyte fraction.In the PBMC fraction.Human 114
Gene profilesHigh granule proteins, NADPH complex subunits, peroxidases; high expression of genes associated with NF-κB signaling, TNF pathways, and lymphotoxin-receptor signaling.Upregulation of MPO, cell cycle and autophagy proteins, G-protein signaling, the CREB pathway, Arg-1, iNOS, ROS, and IL-10.Mice 19
ImmunosuppressionDo not suppress T cells and promote IFN-γ production.Inhibit antigen-specific T cell responses.Human or mice 113
Lytic activityIncreased LAMP2 expression; highly active lysosomes and proteasomes.Reduced LAMP2 expression.Mice 113
CytotoxicityKill tumor cells through ROS and RNS, activate T cells, and recruit M1 macrophages.Not applicable.Mice 115
Phagocytic activityIncreased.Decreased.Mice 116
DifferentiationCannot be converted into G-MDSCs.Differentiate into neutrophils under GM-CSF.Mice 116
  • CREB, cAMP-response element binding protein; Arg-1, arginase 1; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor; G-MDSCs, granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells; IFN-γ, interferon-γ; IL-10, interleukin 10; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; LAMP2, lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2; MPO, myeloperoxidase; NADPH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; NF-κB, nuclear factor-kappa B; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cell; RNS, reactive nitrogen species; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.