Table 1

Differences between G-MDSCs and neutrophils

Surface markersReduced CD115 and CD244.Increased CD115 and CD244.Mice 113
Density centrifugationOn top of the erythrocyte fraction.In the PBMC fraction.Human 114
Gene profilesHigh granule proteins, NADPH complex subunits, peroxidases; high expression of genes associated with NF-κB signaling, TNF pathways, and lymphotoxin-receptor signaling.Upregulation of MPO, cell cycle and autophagy proteins, G-protein signaling, the CREB pathway, Arg-1, iNOS, ROS, and IL-10.Mice 19
ImmunosuppressionDo not suppress T cells and promote IFN-γ production.Inhibit antigen-specific T cell responses.Human or mice 113
Lytic activityIncreased LAMP2 expression; highly active lysosomes and proteasomes.Reduced LAMP2 expression.Mice 113
CytotoxicityKill tumor cells through ROS and RNS, activate T cells, and recruit M1 macrophages.Not applicable.Mice 115
Phagocytic activityIncreased.Decreased.Mice 116
DifferentiationCannot be converted into G-MDSCs.Differentiate into neutrophils under GM-CSF.Mice 116
  • CREB, cAMP-response element binding protein; Arg-1, arginase 1; GM-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor; G-MDSCs, granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells; IFN-γ, interferon-γ; IL-10, interleukin 10; iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase; LAMP2, lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2; MPO, myeloperoxidase; NADPH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; NF-κB, nuclear factor-kappa B; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cell; RNS, reactive nitrogen species; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TNF, tumor necrosis factor.