Table 1

Patient characteristics and treatment response

IDBaseline demographyPVSRIPO TxPoststudy Follow-up
Baseline stageBRAF status at screeningPrior therapies (last to most recent)Total lesions (n)Timing of last anti-PD-1 Tx relative to PVSRIPO injection (days)Anti-PD-1 resistance*irRC†Additional therapies after PVSRIPOProgression-free during follow-up Tx?Time since first PVSRIPO injection
Cohort 0: single lesion injected at baseline/day 0
1IV, M1aWTNivolumab and T-VEC>5~213 daysPrimaryNA‡Ipilimumab/nivolumab and maintenance nivolumabYes§25 months
2IV, M1bWTPembrolizumab, T-VEC, ipilimumab/nivolumab, investigational agent, and pembrolizumab544 daysPrimaryNA‡Pembrolizumab, radiation, and binimetinibNo23 months (died of disease)
3IIICMutVemurafenib and ipilimumab/nivolumab3~100 daysInadequate exposure¶NA‡Ipilimumab/nivolumab and maintenance nivolumab, radiation, T-VEC, investigational agent plus pembrolizumabNo20 months (died of disease)
Cohort 1: two total lesions injected (one at baseline/day 0 and one on day 21)
4IV, M1aMut>10 therapies, including encorafenib/binimetinib, pembrolizumab, IL-2, and T-VEC>5~400 daysSecondaryNA‡Encorafenib, investigational agent plus pembrolizumab, binimetinib, and abraxaneNo22 months
(died of disease)
5IIICMutPembrolizumab, T-VEC, investigational agent/pembro, dabrafenib/trametinib, vemurafenib/cobimetinib, and encorafenib/binimetinib>5~456 daysSecondaryNA‡PembrolizumabYes20 months
6IIICWTNivolumab, T-VEC, ipilimumab/ nivolumab, and radiation>5~213 daysPrimaryNA‡Nivolumab and investigational agentNo11 months (died of disease)
Cohort 2: three total lesions injected (one at baseline/day 0, one on day 21, and one on day 42)
7IV, M1bWTIpilimumab/nivolumab, investigational agent/pembrolizumab>530 daysSecondaryNA‡Pembrolizumab and T-VECNo9 months (died of disease)
8IV, M1aWTNivolumab and pembrolizumab426 daysPrimaryirPR**PembrolizumabYes17 months
9IIICWTNivolumab>515 daysPrimaryirPR and pCR††NivolumabYes16 months
Cohort 3: single lesion injected a total of three times (first at baseline/day 0, second on day 21, and third on day 42)
10IIICWTIpilimumab/nivolumab nd nivolumab315 daysSecondaryNANivolumabNo13 months (died of disease
11IV, M1aWTNivolumab2~91 daysPrimaryirPRNivolumabYes13 months
12IIICWTPembrolizumab>525 daysPrimaryirSD and pCR††NoneYes10 months
  • *Definitions of primary and secondary PD-1 resistance are based on Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer Immunotherapy Resistance Task Force recommendation and assigned per PI chart review.4

  • †irRC.16

  • ‡Patient was taken off trial due to lack of clinical benefit as determined by the PI and started on additional therapy prior to 4-week confirmation of response.

  • §After PVSRIPO, patient 1 received four cycles ipilimumab and nivolumab followed by 7 months of maintenance nivolumab; after maintenance cycle 2 of nivolumab, biopsy of two cutaneous lesions showed no viable tumor. Patient 1 has persistent disease in the lymph node basin that was not biopsied but remains stable; all cutaneous/subcutaneous lesions also remain stable.

  • ¶Patient deemed to have had inadequate exposure to determine the type of anti-PD-1 resistance, due to rapid disease progression.

  • **Confirmation of the irPR was done at 3 weeks instead of 4 weeks.

  • ††Although some pigmented lesions remained, biopsy of injected and non-injected lesions showed no viable melanoma, consistent with pCR.

  • icPR, immune-related response criteria-confirmed partial response; IL, interleukin; irPR, immune-related response criteria-confirmed partial response; irRC, immune-related response criteria; NA, not assessable; pCR, pathological complete response; PD-1, programmed cell death protein 1; PI, principal investigator; T-VEC, talimogene laherparepvec; Tx, treatment; WT, Wild type.