Table 1

Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients used to measure PD-L1 status

Charac-teristicSPH training cohort (N=284)SPH validation cohort (N=116)MCC PD-L1 test cohort (N=85)
PD-L1+PD-L1−P valuesPD-L1+PD-L1−P valuesPD-L1+PD-L1−P values
Age (years)0.410.460.40
 Mean±SD62.71±8.7863.51±8.5663.6±9.2862.73±8.8468.21±9.1864.59±14.61
Sex, No (%)0.035*0.0620.14
 Male58 (68.24)108 (54.27)26 (74.29)44 (54.32)25 (52.08)26 (70.27)
 Female27 (31.76)91 (45.73)9 (25.71)37 (45.68)23 (47.92)11 (29.73)
TNM stage0.120.420.23
 I43 (50.59)122 (61.31)17 (48.57)55 (67.9)0 (0)2 (5.41)
 II22 (26.19)34 (17.08)9 (25.71)14 (17.28)2 (4.17)0 (0)
 III11 (13.10)31 (15.58)9 (25.71)12 (14.81)2 (4.17)1 (2.70)
 IV9 (10.71)12 (6.03)0 (0)0 (0)42 (87.50)33 (89.19)
Histology (baseline), No (%)<0.001*0.006*0.83
 ADC48 (56.47)156 (78.39)19 (54.29)65 (80.25)26 (54.17)21 (56.76)
 SCC37 (43.53)43 (21.61)16 (45.71)16 (19.75)22 (45.83)16 (43.24)
EGFR, No (%)0.020*0.280.076
 Mutation24 (28.57)87 (43.72)9 (25.71)32 (39.51)2 (4.17)5 (13.51)
 Wild55 (65.48)101 (50.75)23 (65.71)46 (56.79)40 (83.33)25 (67.57)
ALK, No (%)0.510.201.00
 Mutation1 (1.19)1 (0.50)2 (5.71)1 (1.23)1 (2.08)0
 Wild78 (92.86)187 (93.97)30 (85.71)77 (95.06)39 (8125)29 (78.38)
ROS1, No (%)1.00NaNNaN
 Mutation02 (1.01)0000
 Wild77 (91.67)179 (89.95)31 (88.57)75 (92.59)26 (54.17)17 (45.95)
Smoking status, No (%)<0.001*0.025*0.83
 Never32 (37.65)118 (59.3)11 (31.43)45 (55.56)17 (35.42)14 (37.84)
 Former53 (62.35)81 (40.7)24 (68.57)36 (44.44)31 (64.58)23 (62.16)
SUVmax<0.001*0.003*0.014*
 Mean±SD12.32±5.998.42±4.8312.14±5.888.61±5.4913.74±7.8310.60±9.92
Deeply learned score (DLS)<0.001*<0.001*<0.001*
 Median
 (IQR)
0.70
(0.60–0.78)
0.43
(0.30–0.55)
0.63
(0.55–0.71)
0.41
(0.270.52)
0.58
(0.47–0.62)
0.39
(0.26–0.43)
PD-L1 positivity by IHC
 No (%)85 (29.93)199 (70.07)35 (30.17)81 (69.83)48 (56.47)37 (43.53)
  • *Mean p value <0.05. The comparison of age and SUVmax between two groups was performed with Wikcoxon sign rank test, and the rest variables were compared with Fisher’s exact test. The demographic and clinical characteristics of external VA patients are provided in online supplemental table S2.

  • ADC, adenocarcinoma; ALK, anaplastic lymphoma kinase; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; IHC, immunohistochemistry; MCC, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute; NaN, not available; PD-L1, programmed death-ligand 1; ROS1, c-ros oncogene 1, receptor tyrosine kinase; SCC, squamous cell carcinoma; SPH, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital; SUV, standardized uptake value; TNM, tumor, node, metastases; VA, James A Haley Veterans’ Administration.