Table 1

Baseline clinical characteristics and immunologic findings of the pre- and post-CAR-T-cell therapy cohorts

DemographicsDiagnosis and treatments prior to CAR-T-cell therapyCAR-T-cell therapy and vaccineBaseline immunologic findings*
Study IDAge group, yearsSexUnderlying diagnosis†Prior HCT, months to vaccinemAb within prior 6 months before vaccine‡CAR-Tx target§Months, CAR-Tx to vaccineVaccine type¶IgG, mg/dLCD19+ B cells /µLCD4+ T cells /µL
Pre-CAR-T cohort
Individuals with an antibody response to ≥1 vaccine strain
Pre-561–75MMMAuto, 43yesBCMAIIV459187.2436
Individuals without antibody responses
Pre-218–60MNHLAuto, 19CD20IIV4552<0.1103
Pre-318–60MMMAuto, 32BCMAIIV44647.2433
Post-CAR-T cohort
Individuals with an antibody response to ≥1 vaccine strain
Post-118–60MALLAllo, 50CD1916IIV4823401.2392
Post-1361–75MMMAuto, 86BCMA14aIIV3290164.7317
Individuals without antibody responses
Post-218–60FALLAllo, 31CD1913ccIIV43710176
Post-318–60FALLAllo, 60CD1957IIV4310<0.1152
Post-918–60FNHLAuto, 48CD1934IIV444794.7504
  • Additional information is provided in online supplemental tables 1 and 2. Blank fields indicate not applicable. Baseline is defined as the day of the baseline blood sample prior to vaccination.

  • *Lower limit of normal; IgG, 610 mg/dL; CD19+ B cells, 100 cells/µL; CD4+ T cells, 500 cells/µL.

  • †All individuals in the pre-CAR-T cohort had relapsed/refractory disease at baseline. All individuals in the post-CAR-T cohort had complete remission or very good partial remission at baseline.

  • ‡Monoclonal antibodies were: ‘pre-1’, blinatumomab; ‘pre-4’ and ‘pre-5’, daratumumab.

  • §CAR-T-cell protocols are depicted in online supplemental table S1.

  • ¶Vaccine strains were: A/Brisbane/02/2018 (H1N1)pdm09-like virus, A/Kansas/14/2017 (H3N2)-like virus, B/Colorado/06/2017-like virus (B/Victoria/2/87 lineage) for IIV3, with the addition of a B/Phuket/3073/2013-like virus (B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage) for IIV4.

  • **One of the 13 individuals in the post-CAR-T cohort did not receive an influenza vaccine in the prior season.

  • aIIV3, adjuvant trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine; ALL, acute lymphoblastic leukemia; Allo, allogeneic; Auto, autologous; BCMA, B cell maturation antigen; CAR-T-cell, chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cell; CAR-Tx, CAR-T-cell therapy; cc, cell culture based; CLL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia; F, female; HCT, hematopoietic cell transplant; HD, high dose; IIV3, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine; IIV4, quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine; M, male; mAb, B cell lineage targeted monoclonal antibody; MM, multiple myeloma; NHL, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.