Table 1

Characteristics of cohort participants by mortality status at 1 year after immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy initiation

VariablesDied within 365 days (N=617)Survived >365 days (N=1590)P value
Baseline
Demographics
 Age67.5 (59.4,75.1)66.1 (57.6,74.8)0.047
 Female sex271 (43.9%)688 (43.3%)0.78
 Black race41 (6.6%)105 (6.6%)0.97
Comorbidities
 Hypertension386 (62.6%)939 (59.1%)0.13
 Diabetes139 (22.5%)316 (19.9%)0.17
 CKD69 (11.2%)165 (10.4%)0.58
 Cirrhosis19 (3.1%)23 (1.4%)0.01
Cancer type and stage
 Lung292 (47.3%)594 (37.4%)<0.001
 Melanoma65 (10.5%)317 (19.9%)<0.001
 Kidney64 (10.4%)225 (14.2%)0.02
 Digestive53 (8.6%)65 (4.1%)<0.001
 Head and neck33 (5.3%)77 (4.8%)0.62
 Breast10 (1.6%)57 (3.6%)0.02
 Other100 (16.2%)255 (16%)0.92
 Stage 4 cancer555 (90%)1267 (79.7%)<0.001
Laboratory findings
 Creatinine0.9 (0.7,1.1)0.9 (0.7,1.1)0.07
 eGFR83.4 (60.9, 98.2)82.9 (63.5, 95.6)0.55
 Blood urea nitrogen16 (12, 20)16 (12, 21)0.13
 Hemoglobin11.5 (10.2, 12.8)12.7 (11.2, 14)<0.001
 Platelet count264 (194, 345)243 (195, 306)<0.001
 Bicarbonate26 (24, 27)26 (24, 27)0.65
Medication use
 Antibiotic357 (57.9%)853 (53.6%)0.07
 PPI184 (29.8%)338 (21.3%)<0.001
 NSAID152 (24.6%)332 (20.9%)0.06
Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)
 Ipilimumab92 (14.9%)307 (19.3%)0.02
 Nivolumab289 (46.8%)708 (44.5%)0.33
 Pembrolizumab196 (31.8%)550 (34.6%)0.21
 Other ICI100 (16.2%)257 (16.2%)0.98
 Multiple75 (12.2%)265 (16.7%)0.01
During follow-up
 Acute kidney injury193 (31.3%)356 (22.4%)<0.001
 AKI stage 192 (14.9%)225 (14.2%)0.65
 AKI stage 2 or higher101 (16.4%)131 (8.2%)<0.001
 Peak creatinine1.1 (0.8,1.6)1.1 (0.9,1.5)0.49
 Dialysis7 (1.1%)8 (0.5%)0.11
 Immune-related adverse events
  Pneumonitis55 (8.9%)54 (3.4%)<0.001
  Adrenalitis53 (8.6%)214 (13.5%)0.002
  Colitis52 (8.4%)184 (11.6%)0.03
  Dermatitis46 (7.5%)243 (15.3%)<0.001
  Hepatitis17 (2.8%)58 (3.6%)0.30
  Thyroiditis16 (2.6%)91 (5.7%)0.002
  Hypophysitis14 (2.3%)91 (5.7%)0.001
  Interstitial nephritis8 (1.3%)31 (2.0%)0.29
  • Immune-related adverse events defined using ICD codes. Complete list of ICD codes is presented in online supplemental file 1.

  • AKI, acute kidney injury; CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; ICD, international classification of diseases; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PPI, proton pump inhibitors.