Table 2

Multivariate analysis of liquid biomarkers

CategoryP ValueInteraction P Value
LDH (given all else)0.1408
LDH*treatment (given all else)0.9334
ctDNA (given all else)0.007
ctDNA*treatment (given all else)0.3105
CD4+/CD8+ ratio (given all else)0.043
CD4+/CD8+ ratio*treatment (given all else)0.0131
CategoryCoefficientExponential (coefficient)Standard Error (coefficient)Z-StatisticProbability > │Z│
Stage IV M1a–0.08460.91890.5747–0.14720.883
Stage IV M1b0.58031.78650.55131.05260.2925
Stage IV M1c
(normal LDH)
Stage IV M1c
(elevated LDH)
Baseline CD4+/CD8+ ratio above median0.36951.4470.19211.92360.0544
Baseline ctDNA detectable0.66261.93990.23522.81720.0048
Baseline CD4+/CD8+ ratio above median*treatment–0.69990.49660.2848–2.45770.014
  • Disease stage was also included in the model, as it was a stratification factor (along with LDH level). Hypotheses were tested using likelihood ratio tests. P<0.05 indicates significant prognostic value; interaction p<0.05 indicates significant predictive value (top). From the model including all factors of interest, coefficients identified as having evidence of non-null status are shown (bottom).

  • CD, cluster of differentiation; ctDNA, circulating tumor DNA; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase.