Table 1

Demographics and baseline clinical characteristics of confirmed ICI-nephritis, ICI-treated controls, and hemodynamic AKI controls

Demographics/clinical characteristicsICI-nephritis (N=24)ICI-treated controls (N=10)Hemodynamic AKI (N=6)
Age (years, IQR)72 (61–78)67 (58–76)62 (52–73)
 White20 (83.3%)10 (100%)2 (40%)
 Others4 (16.7%)4 (60%)
Male sex (N, %)16 (66.7%)5 (50%)3 (50%)
Baseline eGFR (mL/min/1.732, IQR)*66.1 (51.4–87.6)93.7 (68.8–100.5)55.2 (48.8–93.9)
 Hypertension75%60%4 (66.7%)
 Diabetes mellitus16.7%30%3 (50%)
 Congestive heart failure4.2%10%4 (66.7%)
Medication use
 ACEi/ARB33.3%30%3 (50%)
 Diuretics use†29.2%0%2 (33.3%)
AIN-causing medications
 PPI58.3%30%0 (0%)
Cancer type (N, %)
 Lung cancer10 (41.7%)0
 Genitourinary cancer‡4 (16.7%)0
 Melanoma4 (16.7%)7 (70%)
 Gastrointestinal cancer§4 (16.7%)2 (20%)
 Head and neck cancer2 (8.3%)
 Lymphoma01 (10%)
ICI regimen (N, %)
 Anti-PD-1 therapy20 (83.3%)10 (100%)
 Anti-PD-L1 therapy2 (8.3%)
 Anti-CTLA-4/PD-1 combination2 (8.3%)
Concurrent chemotherapy¶4 (16.7%)2 (20%)
Cumulative ICI doses prior to sampling (cycles, IQR)6(4–8)**8.5 (4–18)
Time from last ICI dose to sIL-2R collection (days, IQR)21 (19.5–29)25.5 (20–56)
Concurrent irAEs (N, %)6 (25.0%)0 (%)
Cancer response to immunotherapy
 Stable disease21 (87.5%)9 (90%)
 Progressive disease3 (12.5%)1 (10%)
  • Demographics and baseline clinical characteristics of confirmed ICI-nephritis, ICI-treated controls and hemodynamic AKI controls.

  • *Baseline eGFR was defined as the closest eGFR within 14 days prior to ICI initiation in ICI-nephritis group, closest eGFR within 14 days prior to sIL-2R level in ICI-treated controls, and closest available eGFR prior to AKI onset in the hemodynamic AKI group. Three patients in the hemodynamic AKI group did not have creatinine available within 90 days prior to AKI onset, and their baseline eGFR level was imputed from the nadir creatinine during hospitalization.

  • †Includes loop, thiazide-like, and potassium-sparing diuretics.

  • ‡Includes renal cell carcinoma, urothelial/transitional cell carcinoma.

  • §Includes gastric carcinoma, esophageal carcinoma, and pancreatic carcinoma.

  • ¶Concurrent chemotherapy includes carboplatin/pemetrexed in two patients with lung cancer, paclitaxel in a patient with duodenal cancer, and dacarbazine in a patient with lymphoma.

  • **One patient did not have known cumulative ICI doses (received from outside hospital) prior to sIL-2R sampling at our institution.

  • ACEi/ARB, ACE inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockade; AIN, acute interstitial nephritis; AKI, acute kidney injury; anti-CTLA-4, anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4; anti-PD1, anti-programmed cell death protein1; anti-PD-L1, anti-programmed cell death protein1 ligand 1; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; ICI, immune checkpoint inhibitor; irAEs, immune-related adverse events; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; PPI, proton pump inhibitor.