Studies that investigated the effects of combining radiofrequency ablation with immunomodulation and their results

Radiofrequency Ablation and Immunotherapy
ReferenceTumor ModelImmunotherapyEndpointsRFA MonotherapyCombination Therapy
Behm, B., et al. [31]VX2 Rabbit Liver CancerCpG BMean Animal Survival After Inoculation97.3 Days(Range: 76–120)(p < 0.05 versus Control)113.9 Days(Range: 89–120)(p < 0.05 versus Control & Monotherapy)
Tumor Specific Lymphocyte Stimulation Index 2 Weeks After Treatment88.49 SI(39.30 StdDev)(p < 0.05 versus Control)103.43 SI(55.55 StdDev)(p < 0.05 versus Control)
Cytolytic Activity 2 Weeks After TreatmentNS487.79 RLU(148.69 StdDev)(Not Significant versus Control)972.72 RLU(362.77 StdDev)(p < 0.05 versus Control)
Rechallenge With Malignant Cells to Animals Surviving 160 DaysAll Animals Developed Pulmonary MetastasesPulmonary Metastases Developed in 2 out of 6 Animals
den Brok, M.H., et al. [10]B16OVA Murine MelanomaAnti-CTLA-4 AntibodiesOVA Rechallenge to Animals Surviving 40 DaysUsed as Control with Sham IgG AntibodiesSignificant Increase in Percentage Survival Versus Control(p < 0.05)
OVA kb Tetramer Positive CD8b + T Cells After 10 Days0.1% of CD8b + T Cells4.2% of CD8b + T Cells
Anti-CD25 AntibodiesOVA Rechallenge to Animals Surviving 40 DaysUsed as Control with Sham IgG AntibodiesSignificant Increase in Percentage Survival Versus Control(p < 0.05)
OVA kb Tetramer Positive CD8b + T Cells After 10 Days0.1% of CD8b + T Cells2.8% of CD8b + T Cells
Dromi, S.A., et al. [36]MB49 Murine Urothethial CarcinomaIntratumoral Injection of Immature Ex-Vivo Dendritic CellsMedian Tumor Volume ChangeSignificant Volume Loss Versus Control(p < 0.05 versus Control)No Significance Established Versus Control or Monotherapy(p = 0.07)
Nakagawa, H., et al. [38]MC38 Murine Colon CancerLocal Injection of OK-432 Stimulated Dendritic CellsMean Tumor Volume 10 Days After TreatmentNo Significant Established Versus ControlSignificant Volume Loss Versus Monotherapy(p < 0.001)
CD4+ T Cell Infiltration into Untreated Tumors 10 Days After TreatmentSignificantly IncreasedVersus Control(p < 0.001)Significantly Increased Versus Control & Monotherapy(p < 0.001)
CD8+ T Cell Infiltration into Untreated Tumors10 Days After TreatmentSignificantly IncreasedVersus Control(p < 0.001)Significantly Increased Versus Control & Monotherapy(p < 0.001)
Liu, Q., et al. [39]B16F10-luc Murine MelanomaHeat-shocked Tumor Cell Lysate-pulsed Dendritic CellsPercent Survival 100 Days After TreatmentNo DataSignificantly Increased Versus Combination with Unheated Tumor Cell Lysate Pulsed DC’s (p < 0.01)
IFN-γ Produced by CD+ T Cells Isolated From Draining Lymph Nodes After 2 WeeksNo DataSignificantly Increased Versus Combination with Unheated Tumor Cell Lysate Pulsed DC’s(p < 0.01)
Gameiro, S.R., et al. [40]MC38 CEA+ Murine Colon CancerPoxviral Vaccine Expressing CEA and a TRIad of Costimulatory Molecules (CEA/TRICOM)Primary & Distal Tumor Burden at Day 24Combined Volume Significantly Reduced Versus Control(p < 0.0001)Combined Volume Significantly Reduced Versus Monotherapy(p < 0.0054)
Relapse Free Survival34.5% Animals Achieved Tumor Eradication50% Subsequently Relapsed52% Animals Achieved Tumor Eradication30.8% Subsequently Relapsed
Iida, N., et al., [41]BNL 1ME A.7R.1 Murine HepatomaActive Variant of CC Chemokine Ligand 3 (ECI301)Tumor Volume After 14 DaysSignificantly Reduced Compared to Control(p < 0.01)Significantly Reduced Versus Monotherapy(p < 0.05)
CD4+ & CD8+ T Cell Infiltration After 3 DaysSignificantly Increased Versus Control(p < 0.01)Significantly Increased Versus Monotherapy(p < 0.01)
Shi, L., et al. [16]CT26 Murine Colon CancerAnti-PD-1 AntibodiesTumor Volume After 30 DaysNo Significance Established Versus ControlSignificantly Reduced Versus Monotherapy(p < 0.001)
Total Survival After InoculationNo Significance Established Versus ControlSignificantly Prolonged Survival Versus Monotherapy(p < 0.001)

Cytolytic activity as measured by relative luminescence units (RLU) of adenylate kinase released by isolated peripheral blood T cells

NS, not significant